By Neena Washington
content material: 1. phone Membranes, Epithelial obstacles and Drug Absorption 2. Parenteral Drug supply three. Drug supply to the Oral hollow space or Mouth four. Oesophageal Transit five. the tummy 6. Drug Absorption from the Small gut 7. Drug supply to the big gut and Rectum eight. Transdermal Drug supply nine. Nasal Drug supply 10. Pulmonary Drug supply eleven. Ocular Drug supply 12. Vaginal and Intrauterine Drug Delivery.
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Additional resources for Physiological pharmaceutics : barriers to drug absorption
Under these conditions the concentration of drug in the plasma remains approximately constant until the delivery device is exhausted, a period which can be designed to last from several hours to several months. 4 Absorption of drugs from intramuscular injections 28 Physiological Pharmaceutics Formulation considerations Since the formulation does not have to be miscible with water, it is possible to inject a much wider range of materials than those which can be administered intravenously. The possible formulations include aqueous solutions, aqueous suspensions, oily solutions, oil in water emulsions, water in oil emulsions, oily suspensions, and dispersions in polymer or solid implants.
Initally experiments were performed using simple nondegradable polystyrene particles coated with an adsorbed layer of ill-characterized industrial polymer, and much of the early literature in this area is confused and irreproducible. The current state of the art involves the use of highly characterized selfassembling materials such as poly (d, l lactide)—poly (ethylene glycol), and phospholipids with poly (ethylene glycol) grafted to the headgroup to form ‘stealth’12. Despite the interest these advanced materials, our understanding of their behaviour is largely incomplete.
Reconstitution systems such as the Abbott Add-Vantage and Lilly Faspak allow the drug to be administered from the container in which it was reconstituted, avoiding a transfer step. The increased cost of novel packagings like this can often be justified since it may avoid major expenditure on skilled labour and sterile compounding facilities. Injected participates Although pharmacopoeial specifications generally require parenterals to be free of particles, there are occasions in which we need to understand the behaviour of particulate materials in the bloodstream, not least because they may form the basis of potentially useful drug delivery systems.
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