By Peter Mark Roget
Less than the phrases of the need of the Oxford student Francis Henry, Earl of Bridgewater (1756-1829), Fellow of the Royal Society, absentee rector and willing manuscript-collector, a sequence of books was once commissioned, designed to give a contribution to an figuring out of the realm as created by means of God. In 1834 Peter Roget, who used to be on the time compiling his celebrated glossary, contributed a two-volume treatise to that arguable sequence, which shaped a part of the advanced highbrow historical past to Darwin's paintings on evolution. Roget defined, in a fashion designed to attract a large viewers, the diversity and complexity of the plant and animal kingdoms, focussing on mechanics within the first quantity and body structure within the moment. The interconnected services of person vegetation and animals are visible as proving God's layout. The arguments came across the following resonate with debates that proceed this present day, in addition to offering resource fabric for historians of technological know-how.
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Extra info for Animal and Vegetable Physiology. 2 Volume Paperback Set: Animal and Vegetable Physiology: Considered with Reference to Natural Theology
Exhalation. THE nutrient sap, which, as we have seen, rises in the stem, and is transmitted to the leaves without any change in its qualities or composition, is immediately, by the medium of the stomata, or orifices which abound in the surface of those organs, subjected to the process of exhalation. The proportion of water which the sap loses by exhalation in the leaves is generally about two-thirds of the whole quantity received ; so that it is only the remaining third that returns to nourish the organs of the plant.
II. E See also Annales 50 THE VITAL FUNCTIONS. very limited. The cause of these motions is not yet known ; but probably they are ultimately referable to a vital contraction of the vessels; for they cease the moment that the plant has received an injury, and are more active in proportion as the temperature of the atmosphere is higher. ,* where the double currents are beautifully seen under the microscope, performing a complete circulation within the spaces of the stem that lie beween two 240 adj acent knots or j oints; and where, by the proper adjustment of the object, it is easy to see at one view both the ascending and descending streams passing on opposite sides of the stem.
This nursling sap, provided for the nourishment of the young bads, has been compared to the milk of animals, which is prepared for a similar purpose at those times only when nutriment is required for the rearing of their young. Several opinions have been entertained with regard to the channels through which the sap is conveyed in its ascent along the stem, and in its passage to its ultimate destination. Many observations tend to show, that, in ordinary cir7 cumstances, it is not transmitted through any of the distinguishable vessels of the plant: for most of these, in their natural state, are found to contain only air.
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