By G. Dunn

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A~ ai' should be set at a value of unity. ) But how useful is this artificial variate constructed from the observed characters? To answer this question one would first need to know the proportion of the total variance attributable to it. If 87% of the variation in an investigation involving six characters could be accounted for by a simple weighted average ofthe character values, it would appear that almost all of the variation could be expressed along a single continuum rather than in six-dimensional space.

94(height) both of which appear to be measures of carapace 'shape', being comparisons of length versus width and height, and height versus length and width, respectively. The first principal component often has the characteristic of a measurement of size. Jolicoeur & Mosimann (1960) emphasize that for this interpretation to be justifted all coefficients must have the same sign, whereas those of the other components must generally have mixed signs. Rao (1964) gives a mathematical 'argument for this interpretation, and the interested reader is referred to Blackith & Reyment (1971) for a fuller discussion of this point.

4. Note that the latent vectors have been rescaled by Jeffers after the analysis, so that 'the maximum coefficient (weighting) in each column is + 1. This scaling is arbitrary and is only useful if it helps the reader to assess the relative importance of each of the original measurements in the composition of the calculated orthogonal components. In this example the ftrst component is again clearly a measure of the overall size of the aphids. Jeffers (1967) interpreted the second component as a measure of the number of ovipositor spines, the third as a measure of the number of antennal spines and the fourth as a measure of the number of spiracles.