By Simon Hug
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Extra resources for Altering Party Systems: Strategic Behavior and the Emergence of New Political Parties in Western Democracies
The first one had almost no personal ties to another party, while the second one clearly formed as a breakaway from an existing party, namely the Labour Party. In the remaining case (the Netherlands), a new party seemed, for a long time, hardly necessary and, therefore, failed to form rapidly. The groups that stood behind the three new parties or potential new parties also distinguish themselves considerably. In two of the cases, the demands the groups voiced were either extreme or quite new. In the last one, the demands were much more moderate and can be placed at the center of an ideological scale.
This can have important consequences, as was the case with the German Greens. From the eyes of most authors who wrote about this case, which was also discussed by Schoonmaker (1988), the traditional parties failed to adopt the demands of the protest groups.? Interestingly enough, only after the German Green party was actually formed, did they finally realize how important these demands were: 7. Von Oppeln (1989) illustrates this velY convincingly in her study of the nuclear protest movement in Hessen.
Maser 1981,355, my translation) These demands are of a serious nature and, in fact, almost imply the abolishment of the Weimar Republic. Neumann (1965, 73) therefore characterizes the NSDAP as a protest group. During this period the NSDAP was actively collaborating with other conspiracy groups against the Weimar Republic. With the help of the Bavarian government serious preparations were made to overthrow the Weimar Republic in a march to Berlin. But, in November of 1923, the head of the Bavarian government informed the paramilitary units that there was to be no Putsch (Orlow 1973,44).
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