By A. G. Brown
This accomplished technical guide is designed to offer archaeologists the required history wisdom in environmental technological know-how required to excavate and learn archaeological websites via rivers and on floodplains. Bringing jointly details at the evolution and exploitation of floodplain and river landscapes, this article attracts on examples from Britain, Europe, North the USA and Australasia. a major subject matter is the interplay among climatic and cultural forces and the transformation of riverine environments.
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Additional resources for Alluvial Geoarchaeology: Floodplain Archaeology and Environmental Change (Cambridge Manuals in Archaeology)
1), indicating strength, and powers of fertility and nourishment. They celebrated the God at the festivals of inundation, and because of the central role of the river in the Egyptian economy the collection of accurate hydrological records began in the First Dynasty (c. 3000 BC) with the engraving of maximum annual flood height on a large stone stele. The first Nilometer (fixed recording device or structure) was cut into the rocks at Samnah in the Twelfth Dynasty (c. 2200-2000 BC). The Nile's behaviour formed the basis of the oldest Egyptian calendar, which divided the year up into three parts, one of which (Akhet) was the main flood season.
In more stable floodplain systems, occupation is possible and attractive, if the river and floodplain is a major source of food, or has ritual or strategic significance. If we take a typical model of a meandering single- or multiple-channel floodplain, we can identify four environments where occupation is possible and locations where it is unlikely owing to semi-permanent high water tables (see chapter 9). Indeed, in this system there is an optimal location for settlement and that is a terrace edge, or island, at a point where a channel bluff slope is cutting into the terrace.
Feature Description Formation Ripples Characteristic wave-like cross-sectional forms, either straight or crescentic in planform up to 2000 mm in length and 250 mm in height. Composed of sand. Characteristic wave-like cross-section and planform similar to ripples but larger. Normally sand but can be composed of sand and gravel if formed by catastrophic flows. D-shaped planform growing out from the banks into the channel, composed of sand and/or gravel but frequently grading from silt and sand at the edges to gravel by the bank.
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