By Andrea Megela Simmons (auth.), Andrea Megela Simmons, Richard R. Fay, Arthur N. Popper (eds.)
In order to speak, animals ship and obtain signs which are topic to their specific anatomical, mental, and environmental constraints. This SHAR quantity discusses either the construction and belief of acoustic signs. Chapters handle the knowledge that animals converse, how the verbal exchange is built and realized, and the way verbal exchange platforms have tailored and advanced inside of species. The e-book will provide examples from a number of species.
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Additional info for Acoustic Communication
For ﬁn whales in the northwest Atlantic ocean, Watkins et al. (1987) used the coincidence between the seasonal occurrence of these sounds and breeding to suggest that these are male reproductive displays equivalent to humpback songs. However, the sex of the animals producing these long, patterned sequences needs to be determined, and both species are vocally active during the summer feeding season, which suggests that not all of this vocal activity is related to breeding (Ljungblad et al. 1998; Croll et al.
Increasing the source level is one direct mechanism for reaching a greater audience. This is especially true for deep-ocean conditions where there are fewer surface and bottom reﬂections. However, when water depth is poorly matched to a signal’s frequency band, the energetic cost of increasing source intensity may outweigh the advantages of increased communication range. , frequency band or duration) to achieve greater communication range. For purposes of this discussion, we refer to species that prefer coastal and/or shallow water habitats during major portions of their lives as coastal and species that spend major portions of their lives in deep water as pelagic.
Their results support the prediction that the effect of substrate on cutoff frequency varies with depth, acting more like a rigid or soft bottom with decreasing or increasing depth, respectively. Given a constant depth and no temperature gradient, the wavelength of the cutoff frequency was predicted to lie between two and four times the depth of the water as predicted for soft and rigid bottoms, respectively. 3. Geometrical Spreading It has been proposed that the propagation of the sound wave in shallow water might be best modeled as cylindrical spreading because the air–water interface and the bottom act as boundaries that limit sound radiation (Urick 1983).
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