A History of Modern Germany 1800 - 2000 by Martin Kitchen

By Martin Kitchen

This attractive textbook offers a huge survey of recent German background from 1800-2000, and situates Germany’s fragmented prior inside of its complete context. Kitchen:

  • Provides readers an extended view of German heritage, letting them see continuities and adjustments
  • Covers the unification of Germany, the German Empire, the Weimar Republic, the 3rd Reich, the Federal Republic, the cave in of Communism, and the re-unification
  • Examines cultural historical past in addition to political and financial historical past
  • Includes assurance of nearby heritage instead of concentrating on the dominant function of Prussia

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Unlike Prussia, where the king was restrained by a council of state and by a powerful chancellor, the Austrian emperor Francis I attempted to rule as an absolute monarch. But he was permanently lost in the minutiae of administration and lacked any clear political vision. Metternich was given the title of chancellor in 1821, but his powers were largely restricted to foreign affairs. This hopeless muddle became even worse when Francis died and was succeeded by his dimwitted son Ferdinand I. The affairs of state were now conducted by a committee in which Metternich and his rival Kolowrat effectively canceled one another out.

One sought a spouse of appropriate social standing and of impeccable reputation, who was known to be reliable, hardworking, and honest. Mutual respect and a sense of obligation were the foundations on which the family rested.

It was thus not until 1813, when Prussia was again at war, that all men of age were called up to serve the nation in arms. A territorial army (Landwehr) was also formed with a solidly bourgeois officer corps, unlike the regular army in which the aristocracy still predominated. The ideals of the reformers were most fully realized in the Landwehr, which was passionately supported by the liberals and equally intensely detested by conservatives for decades to come. The proposal to arm all remaining males from the age of 15 to 60 in a levée en masse, without uniforms and with elected officers, appalled most respectable citizens.

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A History of Modern Germany 1800 - 2000 by Martin Kitchen
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